Metradicentro-Centro Diagnóstico Tratamento Médico Lda, Curiosities



Cardiology (in Greek: Καρδιολογία lit. Study of the Heart) is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the heart and the other components of the circulatory system.

The specialist in this area is the cardiologist.

The most common examination done by routine during an outpatient cardiology is the electrocardiogram.


Pediatrics(from the Greek paidos - child and iatreia - healing process) [1] is the medical specialty devoted to the care of children and adolescents, in its various aspects, whether preventive or curative.

The preventive aspects involve actions such as breastfeeding, immunizations (vaccines), accident prevention, besides the monitoring and guidance necessary for healthy growth and development (Childcare). Already the dressings correspond to various procedures and treatments of various diseases exclusive or not of the child and adolescent.

The pediatrician is a doctor with training directed exclusively to the care of children and adolescents, with a lineup that comprises at least two years of residency or course equivalent postgraduate specialization, however, only those professionals who have completed the course of medical residency specialty can get their registration next to the CRM record.

To act in specific areas of pediatrics it is necessary beyond the initial training, training and studies in specialized services for a period ranging from one to three years.



Dermatology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of diseases affecting the human body's largest organ - the skin, averaging 2 square meters in an adult. The specialty also includes diseases that affect the skin appendages: hair and nails, and mucous membranes (eg, mouth and genitals).

Another name is Dermatovenereology since the specialty has an important role in the context of sexually transmitted diseases (VD).

The history of modern dermatology begins in Europe between the fifteenth and sixteenth century, where clinicians begin to take an interest in skin problems. The first textbook of dermatology was written in 1797 by Dr. Robert Willian. In fact, gradually Medicine began to emphasize the importance of the skin, not only as a wrapper, but the largest organ of the human being.

Dermatology operates in all pathophysiological processes involving the skin: from simple infections, autoimmune and inflammatory reactions, and tumors. The hansenology is another important operating area of dermatology. Because it deals with the skin, dermatology is the medical specialty most suited for performance in cosmiatry. Currently, the trained dermatologist can perform a subspecialization in Dermocosmiatry where the study and application in the field of cosmiatry is the center of action of this professional. Another highlight is the Dermatological Surgery which is a subspecialty of Dermatology, where the medical professional is able to perform more complex surgical procedures of the skin and its appendages (nails, hair, glands, etc.).

General surgery

General surgery is the medical specialty whose area of expertise includes: Abdominal Surgery, Laparoscopic Surgery and Surgery of Trauma. This medical specialty deals with the study of the pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of diseases can be approached by surgical procedures. Medical residency in General Surgery is a prerequisite for many other surgical specialties. Recently the Brazilian Medical Association and the CFM recognized General Surgery as a career and not just being a prerequisite for other specialties. Thus, currently the Surgeon General is the one enabled and trained to solve the most common surgical diseases, as well as working on laparoscopy and trauma surgery.

In Portugal, the internship consists of 72 months distributed as follows: 48 General Surgery - including 12 of Cervical Surgery (Neck); 3 of Traumatology, 3 of Pediatric Surgery, Plastic Surgery 3, 3 of Orthopaedics, 2 of Maxillofacial Surgery, 2 of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vascular Surgery 2, 2 of Neurosurgery, 2 of Gynecology and Urology 2. The evaluation (theoretical, practical and curriculum) is taken at the end of each year and boarding. At the end of this training period, the doctor acquires the specialist degree. In Brazil, the duration is 2 years of study with the optional third for obtaining more knowledge.


Nephrology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and clinical treatment of diseases of the urinary system, especially the kidney. Sometimes these diseases only affect the kidneys but it is necessary to underline that in most cases the diseases that affect the kidneys are general diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and some immune diseases that cause lesions in various organs and also in the kidneys. Improper use of some drugs in current use as analgesics and anti-inflammatories, for example, can also cause kidney damage. If not diagnosed early and if not treated properly, kidney disease can cause progressive loss of renal function and progress to chronic renal failure. In most of these situations, the loss of renal function can be avoided if patients are observed and followed in early nephrology consultation. The reality is that many patients are only shipped late to a nephrologist doctor, usually when they have moderate or severe renal insufficiency, and in those conditions, kidney failure already has an irreversible character. Often, the best that the nephrologist can do is prevent or delay the worsening of kidney disease, which already has several years of evolution .

The etymological origin of the word comes from the Greek (nephros, kidney + logos, treatise), being nephrology the study of the kidneys, its physiology and diseases of the nephron, the morphological and functional unit of the kidney


Urology is a surgical subspecialty of medicine dealing with the urinary tracts of males and females and of the reproductive system of men. Physicians who have expertise in this area are urologists, being trained to diagnose, treat and monitor patients with urological disorders. The organs studied by urologists include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the organs of the male reproductive system (testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). The adrenal glands just entering the specialty due to the surgical aspect of tumor diseases of the suprarenal. When the treatment is surgical tumor suprarenal the endocrinologist forwards to the urologist.

In men, the urinary system is integrated with the reproductive system, whereas in the female urinary tract it opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, which makes one tract disorder often affect the other. Urology combines the monitoring of non-surgical conditions, eg, urinary tract infections, and surgical conditions, such as the correction of congenital anomalies and surgical treatment of cancers. These abnormalities in the genital region are called genitourinary disorders.

Urology is related to the medical areas of nephrology, andrology, gynecology, proctology and oncology.


Gynecology literally means "the science of women", but in medicine it is the specialty that deals with diseases of the female reproductive system, uterus, vagina and ovaries. Almost all gynecologists are also obstetricians today. Obstetrics and gynecology is the name of a recognized medical specialty by the Federal Council of Medicine of Brazil. In Portugal, this skill is known as Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) is considered one of the most complete medical specialties in the world, with clinical and surgical characteristics. Its field (working) of action involves diseases of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx and head and neck.

Speech Therapy

Terapia da Fala, a Fonoaudiologia (português brasileiro) ou Foniatria, Terapia da fala (português europeu), antes denominada logopedia é a ciência que tem como objeto de estudo as funções neurovegetativas (mastigação, deglutição e aspectos funcionais da respiração) e a comunicação humana, que é a função neurológica mais complexa que o sistema nervoso pode processar, no que se refere ao seu desenvolvimento, aperfeiçoamento, distúrbios e diferenças, em relação aos aspectos envolvidos na função auditiva periférica e central, na função vestibular, na função cognitiva, na linguagem oral e escrita, na fala, na fluência, na voz, nas funções estomatognáticas, orofaciais e na deglutição." [1]


The audiologist is a health care professional and is active in research, guidance, expertise, prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, and speech therapy in the area of oral and written communication, speech, hearing and balance, nervous system and stomatognathic system including the cervicofacial region. This professional has broad autonomy, not being mere subordinate or auxiliary in other areas of knowledge or expertise, can act alone or in conjunction with other health professionals in clinics, hospitals, specialist centers in diagnostics, general skill institutes, centers of reference in the worker health, as auxilidar of the judiciary power within the legal expertise involving the area of hearing, speech and language, balance and other related areas, civil, labor and criminal, in kindergartens, schools (ordinary and special) and communities including the Family Health program, basic health units, units of reference for the medium and high procedural complexity of SUS, radio and television, theater, home care, hearing aids, industries, companies, centers of competency and rehabilitation, among others.

The profession possesses its Code of Ethics, which lists and regulates the rights, duties and responsibilities, of the speech therapist, inherent in the relationships established on the basis of their professional activity.
According to the Code of Ethics of Fonoadiology in Brazil are general rights of Phonoaudiologists enrolled in the Speech Regional Councils, within the limits of its powers and duties:
  • exercise of its activity without being discriminated;
  • exercise of the activity with broad autonomy and freedom of belief;
  • evaluation, request, preparing and conducting the examination, diagnosis, treatment and research, issuing an opinion, report and / or reporting, teaching, technical responsibility, advisory, consulting, coordination, administration, guidance, expertise and performing other procedures necessary to exercise fully the activity;
  • freedom in conducting studies and research, safeguarding the rights of individuals or groups involved in their work;
  • freedom of opinion and expression of movements aimed at the defense of the class;
  • request for redress by the Regional Council of the jurisdiction of Speech, when hit in the exercise of professional activity;
  • consultation with the Board of Speech Pathology within its jurisdiction when there is doubt regarding the observance and enforcement of this Code, or Omissions.[2]


The Dietician is a professional who has an interdisciplinary intervention whose primary objective is the application of the science of nutrition in treating diseases and promoting health, individually and collectively.

In this context, the dietician applies their knowledge and skills in professional roles in education and health promotion, treatment, food security, administration and management of food service and dietetics
Varicose veins are dilated and tortuous veins in the human body. The most common are varicose veins of the lower limbs. Secondary to hepatic cirrhosis they do not have the same pathophysiology and should be part of liver diseases. Do not confuse varicose veins (disease of the superficial venous system) with deep venous insufficiency which may be secondary to a problem with phlebothrombosis (also called thrombophlebitis) or with the presence of telangiectasias or reticular varicose (also called effusion). This last situation is not as many think the first phase of varicose disease as existing classifications still mention it, but an independent entity whose pathophysiology appears to be the difficulty of the capillary drainage of the skin to the subcutaneous tissue, and are linked in most cases to a familial tendency.

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